“And I also thought it is important to have people of different ages and races represented,” added Audrey, who, like her brother, is Asian. (Their mother, Rachel, a nurse researcher who volunteered for a vaccine trial, asked that their last names be withheld for privacy reasons.)
Overall, the teen trials may be less diverse, because results from adult trials showed no discernible difference in outcome by race. And because the adult trials were so successful, up to two-thirds of teenagers may be offered the actual vaccine rather than a placebo.
Pfizer, whose trial is fully enrolled, expects results from its trials for children ages 12 through 15 in the first quarter of this year, which it will then submit to the Food and Drug Administration for review. Moderna is still recruiting for its adolescent trials, with data anticipated sometime this summer. Other companies expect to start adolescent trials soon. Shortly after, researchers will open trials for children as young as 5, most likely with more modest doses.
As in any medical trial, investigators are evenhanded when discussing risks and benefits. Rather than lecturing young subjects, Dr. Campbell, whose clinic will conduct a Moderna trial for younger children, engages them in conversation.
“Do you remember your tetanus shot? Tell me about it,” he might say. And then, “Here’s how this is similar and how it’s different.” He wants to make sure the teenager is actively involved in decision-making. “We always say, ‘Don’t do this for your parents.’ ”
Dr. Sarah Hasan, lead recruiter for DM Clinical Research, which oversees the Houston Fights Covid campaign and most of the city’s vaccine trials, said that information sessions for adolescents and adults differ strikingly. She has more fun with the teenagers.
“Usually adults will skim the form, ask a few questions and they’re done,” she said. “But kids ask way more questions than adults and they’re actually listening, which is pretty nice.”